Selenium supplements may be beneficial as an adjuvant treatment for patients with mitochondrial disorders. This is especially true in many parts of Europe and the Middle East where the soil and the foodstuffs have poor selenium content [Stoffaneller & Morse 2015]. Specifically, individuals with mitochondrial dysfunction need the antioxidant and anti-inflammation effects of selenium-dependent selenoproteins [Alehagen 2021; Opstad 2022].
Mitochondrial dysfunction can be defined as the diminished capacity of the mitochondria in the cells to convert sugars into energy, i.e., the diminished capacity of the cells to generate ATP energy [Miwa 2022].
Selenium, as a component of the amino acid selenocysteine, improves the synthesis of inflammatory mediators.
Selenium treatment leads to a decline in the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF-alpha. This indicates that selenium has an anti-inflammatory effect in the body.
Selenium enhances the immune response of T-cells and T-helper 1 cells. T-cells work to destroy cells that have been infected by bacteria or viruses. Th1 cells are also responsible for fighting against bacteria and viruses.
Selenium supplementation increases the concentration of antibodies that enhance vaccine effects.
Selenium acts as a co-factor in the immunity that is mediated by the influenza vaccine. Selenium also serves as a co-factor to achieve a more effective immune response to COVID vaccination.
Selenium contributes to the defense against bacterial and vital pathogens through its effects on redox signaling activities.
-Selenium supplementation of patients with cancer increases antibody concentrations of the immunoglobulins IgA and IgG as well as increases the number of neutrophils.
Selenium – A Crucial Micronutrient for a Functional Immune System
Munteanu & Schwartz  make the following additional points about an adequate supply of selenium:
Selenium improves not only in the functioning of the immune system but also the functioning of thyroid metabolism and the functioning of the cardiovascular system.
Selenium may play a role in the prevention of some forms of cancers.
Selenium and COVID-19
Munteanu & Schwartz  report that selenium together with zinc exerts a protective role in COVID-19 patients. The combination of selenium and zinc is associated with a higher chance of survival.read more
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